The social, political and cultural impacts and effects in implementing the trust by design idea, advocated by the former three research foci is the subject area in Research Focus 4. The trust by design idea implicates a redistribution of social and technical agencies and competencies in the election process. In particular, the highly complex nature of trust in democratic elections constituted by various legal regulations and well-established informal practices must be addressed. This raises questions of the legitimacy and transparency of the election. Those issues are often addressed from a cognitive and psychological perspective with their emphasis on the rationality of the technology on the one hand and the cognitive and emotional faculties of the individual on the other. Our perspective differs radically from this.